This is default featured slide 1 title
This is default featured slide 2 title
This is default featured slide 3 title
 

Monthly Archives: August 2016

Planting Raspberry

Planning

  • Plant in late winter or early spring.
  • Select plants that are bare-root or rooted in soil.
  • Buy only certified virus-free plants. Black raspberries are especially vulnerable to disease, so plant resistant varieties when possible.
  • Summer-bearers should yield some berries in their second year and then full crops each succeeding summer. Everbearers may produce some fruit the first fall.

Preparation

  • Select a site in full sun; avoid frost pockets.
  • Eliminate perennial weeds, preferably with a cover crop planted 1 year in advance. Mix in 1 to 2 pounds of 10-10-10 fertilizer for every 20 feet of row or plenty of manure in early spring before you plant.
  • Destroy neighboring wild raspberries or blackberries to prevent disease from spreading to your plants.

Planting

  • Set plants in the garden an inch or two deeper than previously grown. Space plants 3 feet apart in rows 6 to 7 feet apart. Allow red and yellow raspberries to fill in a hedgerow not more than 2 feet wide (some purples will also create a hedgerow); blackcaps and most purples will remain as separate plants.
  • Cut black raspberry canes back to ground level; leave an 8-inch handle on others. Water well.

Care

  • Keep the aisles between rows tilled bare or plant grass and keep it mowed.
  • Cultivate to control weeds early the first summer, then mulch thickly. Once the plants are established, maintain a layer of mulch 4 to 8 inches deep year-round.
  • Dig or till up suckers that spread beyond row boundaries.
  • Erect a T-trellis if your canes don’t stand up on their own.
  • Prune during the dormant season. Remove dead and weak canes; thin out the healthiest ones. Blackcaps must also be summer-topped.
  • See our article Fruit Pests and Diseases for controls of common raspberry pests such as cane borers, crown borer, and anthracnose disease.

Harvesting

  • Berries usually ripen over a period of 2 to 3 weeks during early summer; everbearers yield again for several weeks in early fall.
  • When they slide easily off the small white core, berries are ripe.
  • Pick into small containers so bottom berries are not crushed.

Raspberries thrive in well-worked, well-fed, slightly acid soil (pH 5.5 to 6.8). Like most fruits, they crave sunlight and plenty of moisture, but adequate drainage is critical. Take the time to eliminate perennial weeds as much as possible, either by repeated tilling or by planting a cover crop a year in advance. Be sure to mix in some 10-10-10 fertilizer (1 to 2 pounds per 20 feet of row) or plenty of manure in early spring before you plant. Not even virus-free or tissue culture plants are immune to infection, so destroy any neighboring wild raspberries or blackberries (within about 300 feet) that might harbor disease.

Planting Raspberries

Early spring (late winter in the South) is the best time to plant raspberries. If you’re importing plants from a friend’s patch (or moving plants around in your own expanding patch), spring is the time to dig them. Keep bare-root raspberry roots moist by covering them with damp peat moss or soil until planting time. Soak the roots in a bucket of water for an hour before setting plants in the garden. Set each plant in a well-watered hole that’s wide enough and deep enough for the roots to spread out. Firm the soil over the roots and cover each cane an inch or two deeper than it was previously grown. Water some more. Cut each cane back to an 8-inch handle to give the roots a chance to get established. To prevent anthracnose disease in black raspberry canes, cut them right back to ground level. The handle usually dies back anyway unless conditions are perfect; it’s not a problem as long as the roots are all right underneath. Red and yellow raspberries multiply by root suckers that spread rapidly in all directions; they can be confined to a hedgerow but not to rows of individual plants.

Planting Black Raspberries

Blackcaps produce no root suckers at all and propagate only by tip-layering. They can be limited easily to isolated hills without crowding neighbors. Purple raspberries can be trained to a row of discrete plants, but some do produce root suckers which can fill out a hedgerow in time. In either case, set the plants about 3 feet apart in a row. Those that sucker can be allowed to fill out a hedge no more than 2 feet wide; those that don’t will stay in a single row of hills. Leave about 6 or 7 feet between rows to promote good air circulation for healthy plants and berries. You can till the aisles bare and mulch them heavily, or plant grass and keep it mowed.

Planting Plum Trees

Planning

  • Some plums are self-fertile but all plums will yield better if planted with a second variety for cross-pollination. Japanese plums need to cross-pollinate with other Japanese or American hybrid plums.
  • Order bare-root, rather than potted trees, if possible.
  • A well-established tree will yield up to 2 bushels of plums.

Preparation

  • Select a site that offers loamy, well-drained soil in full sun.
  • Avoid frost pockets.

Planting

  • Set the tree in the prepared hole keeping the graft union an inch above the soil line.
  • Space standard-size varieties 20 to 25 feet apart, dwarfs 15 to 20 feet apart.

Care

  • Water young trees heavily every week through the first season.
  • Train Japanese trees to an open center shape; train European trees to a conical shape with a central leader.
  • Japanese plum trees benefit from a moderate fruit thinning; do not thin European plums unless the crop is especially heavy.
  • Plums are relatively pest-free, but may be visited by the plum curculio, black knot disease, and brown rot. See our article Fruit Pests and Diseases for controls of these problems.

Harvesting

  • Harvest European plums when they are tree-ripe. They will be a little soft and should come off easily with a slight twist. Late maturing varieties should be near ripe with firm flesh for storing for a few weeks.
  • Pick Japanese plums slightly early and allow them to ripen in a cool place.

Planting Pear Trees

Planning

  • Choose fire blight-resistant varieties and rootstocks, especially in areas outside dry western regions.
  • Most varieties will start to bear significant harvests after 5 to 6 years.
  • Plant at least two different varieties for cross-pollination.

Preparation

  • Choose a site with full sun, moderate fertility, and good air circulation and water drainage.
  • Pears will do well in a wide range of soil types.

Planting

  • Space standard-size trees 20 to 25 feet apart; space dwarf trees 12 to 15 feet apart.

Care

  • Pears do best with a small amount of fertilizer early in the year. Heavy doses of nitrogen will make the tree more vulnerable to fire blight.
  • Use spreaders to encourage horizontal branching and earlier fruiting spurs.
  • See our article Fruit Pests and Diseases for controls of common pear pests such as pear psylla, codling moth, plum curculios, and fire blight.

Harvesting

  • Don’t let pears ripen on the tree. Harvest them when they reach a mature size but are still hard.
  • Early pears will ripen at room temperature in a few days to a week. Storage varieties will keep 1 to 2 months or more in a cool (40° F), dark place.